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DROUGHT INDUCEMENT
Clifford E Carnicom
Edited
Recent analysis leads to the conclusion
that the extensive and systematic aerosol operations that are being conducted
without informed consent are aggravating, if not instigating, the elevated
drought conditions that are now commonly being observed.
The current discussion centers upon the heat aspects
of the atmosphere, which are currently under investigation. This paper will be
presented in two sections: an initial general and conceptual statement of the
problem and findings, to be followed by a more detailed presentation based upon
certain fundamentals of physics, chemistry and mathematics.
In regard to the preliminary discussion, it is necessary to introduce the
physical term known as the "specific heat" of a substance. Here is
the definition of the specific heat:
The specific heat is the amount of heat required to flow into a substance to
produce a one degree rise in temperature.
Comprehension of this definition is helpful to understand the basis of the
discussion which follows. Tabulations of specific heats of the elements and
various compounds are readily available within reference books. Even more
importantly, it is necessary to recognize the practical application of this
definition through the following additional statements:
A substance with a high specific heat requires more heat energy to raise its
temperature a given amount than one with a low specific heat. Similarly, and
conversely, and in particular related to the current discussion, a substance
with a lower specific heat will raise higher in temperature with a given amount
of heat than a substance with a higher specific heat. This importance of this
latter fact will hopefully become apparent to the reader in due course.
The general and conceptual question that arises is this: Given that the air of
the earth has a specific heat value, what would be the projected heat effect of
introducing metallic particulate aerosols into that atmosphere? And
specifically, what would be the projected effect of introducing particulate
forms of aluminum, barium, magnesium, titanium and
calcium? This itemized list of elemental contributions is of special interest
because of both historical and recent investigations that confirm their
unexpected presence in our atmosphere in direct association with the advent of
the aircraft aerosol operations.
It can be stated that the introduction of the majority of these five elements
will have the net effect of increasing the temperature of the atmosphere of
this planet. This is a consequence of the specific heat values of the elements
under primary consideration. This finding is potentially of the greatest
consequence to both the life and welfare of this planet. It is reasonable to
conclude that this finding may reveal a direction connection with, or impact
upon, the rising prevalence of observed drought conditions. It is hoped that
the citizens of this nation and the planet in general will organize to the
level of confronting directly the ramifications of the aerosol operations which
remain in progress, and to continue to force full disclosure and
accountability.
Additional Notes:
Research in the near future will be focused upon the the
continued quantitative assessment of physical impact upon the atmosphere and
ecosphere. The results presented here are an entirely separate and distinct
issue from the moisture absorption or collection properties of the aerosols, as
are also commonly observed. Specific heat properties of substances are
intrinsic to the nature of the elements themselves. Corrections or
modifications to this page will be made as is appropriate.
Expanded
discussion:
The specific heat of a substance (c) is defined as c = dQ/(dT*m), where Q is the amount of heat entering a mass (m) of
substance, and the consequent rise in temperature is dT.
The SI units of specific heat are kJ / (kg * K) where J refers to joules, kg is
kilograms, and K is degrees Kelvin.
The specific heat of air can be taken as 1.003kJ/(kg *
K) with little variation amongst the considered pressures or temperatures. This
means that approximately 1003 joules of energy are required to raise the
temperature of 1 kilogram of air by one degree Kelvin (or Celsius). For the
sake of comparison to more commonly encountered forms of energy and power, a
watt is equal to one joule per second.
The above definition can also be manipulated into the form :
dT = dQ / (m * c). From
this expression, we can see that given a fixed amount of heat flow (dQ), a decreased value for the specific heat (c) will
result in a greater rise in temperature (dT).
This is especially relevant to the current topic, as the majority of the
aerosols under consideration all have a specific heat value less than that of
air.
Our interest in evaluating the effect of aerosol introduction
upon subsequent increases or decreases in atmospheric temperature lead
us to consider the specific heat of a mixture. That is, we must consider the
effects of multiple ingredients within a substance, and their effect upon the
heat transfer properties of that substance.
The specific heat of a mixture is given by:
cp = sum (mfi * cpi)
where mfi is the mass fraction of the ith component, or contribution to the total. This is
defined as:
mfi = mi / m
where mi is the mass of the ith component, and m is
the total mass of the mixture.
cpi is the specific heat of
the ith component of the mixture, and cp is the
specific heat of the mixture.
Let us first consider the specific heat of air alone, which is well established
within the references, and which herein a value of 1.003 kJ/ (kg * K) has been
assumed. In this presentation, the specific heat of air will be designated as c(a).
Now let us consider an added ingredient to this gas, or air. In particular, this
will be an aerosol of a particular element. We will designate the mass of this
introduced element as m(e) and the specific heat of
this element as c(e). From the definition of the specific heat of a mixture
given earlier, we may now write the specific heat of the air combined with the
introduced aerosol as:
cp = (m(a) / (m(a) + m(e))) * c(a) + (m(e) / (m(a) + m(e))) * c(e)
What now becomes of interest to us is the ratio of cp to c(a), i.e, the ratio of the specific heat of the combined mixture
(air + aerosol) to the specific heat of air itself (cp / c(a)). If this ratio
is less than one, it means that the introduction of the aerosol (or element or
compound) will cause a greater rise of temperature in the modified atmosphere
for a given amount of heat (sunlight) into the system.
Let us now form
this ratio:
cp / c(a) = ((m(a) / (m(a) + m(e))) * c(a) + (m(e) / (m(a) + m(e))) * c(e)) /
c(a)
or
cp / c(a) = (m(a)*c(a) + m(e)*c(e)) / (c(a) * (m(a) + m(e)))
Now our interest lies under what conditions this ratio is less than one, as
that will produce a net increase in temperature of the modified air for a given
amount of heat. If the ratio were to manifest as greater than one, then the
converse would be true. Let us examine the question of under what conditions
the ratio becomes less than one:
(m(a) * c(a) + m(e) * c(e)) / (c(a) * (m(a) + m(e)) < 1
or
m(a) * c(a) + m(e) * c(e) < m(a) * c(a) + m(e) * c(a)
or
m(e) * c(e) < m(e) * c(a)
or
c(e) < c(a)
This result is important for the following reason. This result reveals to us
that if we were to introduce an element into the atmosphere with a specific
heat less than that of air, it would have the net effect of raising the
temperature of the modified atmosphere for a given amount of heat (i.e., sun)
input into the system (i.e., ecosphere).
Of course, the question that now arises is, what is
the specific heat of the elements (as a minimum) that are under consideration?
Here are the values for these as well as a few others for us to consider:
Element or Compound 
Specific Heat 


Air 
1.003 
Water 
4.184 
Ice 
2.1 
Aluminum 
0.92 
Barium 
0.19 
Titanium 
0.52 
Magnesium 
1.02 
Calcium 
0.65 
With regard to the
elements under examination, we can see that with exception to magnesium, each
has a specific heat less than that of air. The current analysis leads us to
conclude that the introduction of each of the elements with a specific heat
less than that of air would have the effect of increasing the temperature of
the modified air for a given amount of heat. We also see, on the contrary, that
the introduction of water into the atmosphere, would
have a beneficial effect upon heat reduction due to the large value of specific
heat.
These results portend significant consequences and ramifications upon the
health of this planet and its atmosphere. It is difficult to deny the projected
and current influence upon drought conditions for the earth as long as the
aerosol operations remain unchecked. It is reiterated that the citizens of this
nation and earth have the duty to force full accountability, disclosure and
cessation of the aircraft aerosol operations which remain in progress.
Authored at
The following link to The
National Drought Mitigation Center
based at the University of NebraskaLincoln
is provided as a result of research efforts
by a member of the message board
attached to www.carnicom.com
Appreciation is extended to this individual for the
above contribution.
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